Amartya Sen

अमर्त्य सेन कौन हैं, उन्हें नोबल पुरस्कार क्यों मिला?

Vyakti Vishesh

बहुत कम लोग ऐसे हुए हैं, जिन्हें नोबेल और भारत रत्न जैसे सर्वोच्च सम्मान मिला हो. अर्थशास्त्र के क्षेत्र में भारत से नोबल पुरस्कार एक मात्र विजेता अमर्त्य सेन उन्हीं में से एक हैं. प्रख्यात अर्थशास्त्री अमर्त्य सेन का जन्म 3 नवंबर 1933 को हुआ. पश्चिम बंगाल की राजधानी कोलकाता के शांति निकेतन में जन्मे अमर्त्य सेन की प्रारंभिक शिक्षा दीक्षा कोलकाता में हुई. अमर्त्य सेन के नाना स्वतंत्रता सेनानी थे और रविंद्र नाथ टैगोर के मित्र थे, जिसके कारण सेन का बचपना भी शान्ति निकेतन में ही बीता.

टैगोर के सानिध्य में बचपन

अमर्त्य सेन ने अपने इस वक्त को जीवन का ट्रनिंग प्वाइंट बताया है. सेन के अनुसार वहीं पर उन्हें देश की गरीबी और व्यवस्था पर काम के लिए प्रेरणा मिली. कहां जाता है कि अमर्त्य सेन का नामाकरण भी टैगोर ने ही किया था, बचपन से ही अमर्त्य सेन पर रवींद्र नाथ टैगोर का प्रभाव रहा.

जादवपुर से कैंब्रिज

अमर्त्य सेन जादवपुर विश्वविद्यालय से स्नातक करने के बाद दिल्ली चले आए. यहां पर उन्होंने संत स्टीफन कॉलेज से मास्टर की डिग्री हासिल की. आगे की पढ़ाई करने के लिए सेन कैंब्रिज विश्वविद्यालय चले गए. जहाँ उन्होंने एमफील और पीएचडी की डिग्री पूरी की. अमर्त्य सेन नें अपने मूल विषय अर्थशास्त्र पर लगभग 215 से अधिक शोध किए हैं.

भारत लौटे अमर्त्य सेन

साल 1960 में उनकी शादी नबनीता देव से हुई. उनकी दो बेटी है, जिसमें एक अंतरा भारत में पत्रकार , और दूसरी नंदिता अमेरिका में फिल्म निर्देशक हैं. शिक्षा ग्रहण कर भारत लौटने के बाद अमर्त्य सेन जादवपुर विश्वविद्यालय से जुड़े. वहाँ उन्होने अर्थशास्त्र के प्राध्यापक के रूप में काम शुरू किया. उसके बाद उन्होने दिल्ली स्कूल ओफ़ इकोनॉमिक्स तथा ऑक्सफोर्ड विश्वविद्यालय में भी अध्यापक के तौर पर सेवाएँ दी थी. इनके अलावा वह अलग-अलग विद्यालयों में गेस्ट लेक्चरर और अर्थशास्त्री विशेषज्ञ के तौर पर जा कर अपना ज्ञान बांटते रहे हैं.

अमर्त्य सेन की किताबें

अमर्त्य सेन अर्थशास्त्र पर कई किताबें भी लिखीं जो अर्थव्यवस्था के क्षेत्र में मील का पत्थर साबित हुईं.  उनकी पुस्तक द आइडिया ऑफ जस्टिस और डेवलपमेंट एज फ्रीडम काफ़ी चर्चित है. हाल ही में अर्थशास्त्री ज्या द्रेंज़ के साथ मिलकर लिखी गई उनकी किताब भारत और उसके विरोधाभास ने भी काफी सुर्खियां बटोरी है.

नोबल पुरस्कार

अमर्त्य सेन को साल 1998 में अर्थशास्त्र के क्षेत्र में उनके योगदान के लिए नोबेल पुरस्कार से सम्मानित किया गया. उनके लोक कल्याणकारी अर्थशास्त्र के अवधारणा पर नोबेल ज्यूरी सहमति जताई. अमर्त्य सेन ने अमेरिकी अर्थशास्त्री केनेथ ऐरो के सिद्धांत पर असहमति जताते हुए अपना नया सिद्धांत प्रतिपादित किया था.

केनेथ ऐरो ने असंभाव्यता सिद्धांत नाम की अपनी खोज में कहा था कि व्यक्तियों की अलग-अलग पसंद को मिलाकर समूचे समाज के लिए किसी एक संतोषजनक पसंद का निर्धारण करना संभव नहीं है, लेकिन सेन ने गणितीय आधार पर यह सिद्ध किया है कि समाज इस तरह के नतीजों के असर को कम करने के उपाय ढूंढ सकता है.

प्रोफेसर सेन को साल 1999 में भारत सरकार ने अपने सर्वोच्च सम्मान भारत  रत्न से सम्मानित किया. इसके अलावा सेन कई प्रतिष्ठित सम्मान से भी सम्मानित किए गए हैं, जिनमें लेओन्तीएफ़ पुरस्कार और एडम स्मिथ पुरस्कार प्रमुख हैं.

इसी साल लंदन स्कूल ऑफ इकोनॉमिक्स एंड पॉलिटिकल साइंस (एलएसई) ने प्रोफेसर अमर्त्य सेन को गैर-बराबरी के क्षेत्र में किए गए उनके कामों के लिए सम्मानित करते हुए ‘अमर्त्य सेन चेयर इन इनइक्वैलिटी स्टडी’ नाम से एक नया अकादमिक पद बनाया.

नरेंद्र मोदी के विरोधी

अमर्त्य सेन का प्रधानमंत्री नरेंद्र मोदी का आलोचक माना जाता है. फिल्ममेकर सुमन घोष ने उनकी जिंदगी पर आर्ग्युमेंटेटिव इंडियन नाम से एक डॉक्यूमेंट्री भी बनाई. इस डॉक्यूमेंट्री में वे गुजरात में 2002 में मुसलमानों पर हिंदुओं के हमले की चर्चा करते हैं. डॉक्यूमेंट्री में इस बात का भी ज़िक्र है कि कैसे हिंदुओं के लिए पवित्र मानी गई गाय अहम मुद्दा बन गई है.

क़रीब एक घंटे लंबी इस डॉक्यूमेंट्री में अमर्त्य सेन को अपने छात्रों और अर्थशास्त्र के प्राध्यापक कौशिक बसु के साथ बेतकल्लुफ़ी से बातचीत करते दिखाया गया है.

 

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